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Full text of "Monthly performance report : Bond Construction"

E. I • IX . b'GLA R / 1 0S6 - 1*1 /03 



SOLAR/1050-79/03 

Monthly 

Performance 

Report 




BOND CONSTRUCTION 
MARCH 1979 




U.S. Department of Energy 



National Solar Heating and 
Cooling Demonstration Program 

National Solar Data Program 



NOTICE 

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States 
Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor 
any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, 
make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for 
the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or 
process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. 



MONTHLY PERFORMANCE REPORT 

BOND CONSTRUCTION 

MARCH 1979 

I. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 

The Bond Construction site is a single- family residence in Gladstone, Missouri. 
The home has approximately 1400 square feet of conditioned space. Solar 
energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic hot water 
(DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate collectors with a 
gross area of 465 square feet. The array faces south at an angle of 37 
degrees to the horizontal. A propylene glycol solution is the transfer 
medium that delivers solar energy from the collector array to an external 
heat exchanger. Water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy from 
the external heat exchanger to storage and from storage to the hot water load 
and liquid-to-air heat exchanger in the furnace. Air is the transfer medium 
that delivers solar energy to the space heating load. Solar energy is stored 
in the basement in an 800-gallon steel storage tank with walls approximately 
1/4-inch thick. The storage tank has 4-inch polyurethane insulation on the 
bottom and 8-inch fiberglass insulation on the top and sides. Preheated city 
water is stored in an 82-gallon DHW tank. When solar energy is insufficient 
to satisfy the space heating load, a gas furnace provides auxiliary energy 
for space heating. Similarly, an electrical immersion heater in the DHW tank 
provides auxiliary energy for heating the supply water. Solar energy is 
transferred from the storage tank to the hot-air heating system by a liquid- 
to-air heat exchanger contained in the furnace ductwork; solar energy is 
transferred from the storage tank to the DHW tank by an annular heat exchanger 
jacket around the hot water tank. The house also contains a fireplace with 
an integral fan; the fireplace is only instrumented for monitoring fan power 
consumption. The system, shown schematically in Figure 1, has 5 modes of 
solar operation. 

Mode 1 - Collector-to-Storage : This mode activates when there is a tempera- 
ture difference of 20°F between a control sensor located at the collector and 
a control sensor located inside the storage tank (near the bottom). At 
this time the controller turns on both the collector and storage circuit 
pumps (PI and P2, respectively). Solar energy is transferred from the collector 
to the storage tank by an external heat exchanger. Both pumps continue to 
operate until the temperature difference is less than 5°F; the controller 
then turns both pumps off. 

Mode 2 - Storage-to-Space Heating : This mode activates when the room tem- 
perature drops to the setting on the house thermostat. At this point, this 
mode is initiated if the storage temperature, measured by a control sensor 
inside the tank (near the top), is higher than 95°F. If so, the furnace 
circuit pump (P3) turns on and hot water circulates from the storage tank 
through a liquid-to-air heat exchanger in the furnace. At the same time the 
furnace fan turns on, forcing air past the heat exchanger, thereby transferring 
the solar energy to the heating load. If the room temperature drops an 
additional increment (set point), the auxiliary gas burner turns on to provide 
auxiliary energy to the heating load. If storage temperature falls to 90°F 




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while in this mode, the mode terminates. However, the fan and gas furnace 
continue to supply energy until the thermostat demand is satisfied. If the 
storage temperature is below 95°F when the room thermostat calls for heat, 
this mode does not activate; auxiliary energy is then provided by the gas 
furnace. The pump, fan and burner (if on) are turned off when the room 
temperature exceeds the thermostat setting. 

Mode 3 - Storage-to-DHW : This mode activates when there is a temperature 
difference of 10°F between the control sensor located inside the storage tank 
(near the top) and the control sensor located in the hot water tank (near the 
middle). This mode terminates when the temperature difference drops to 3°F. 
When this mode activates, pump P4 circulates hot water from the storage tank 
through an annular jacket surrounding the hot water tank; energy is thereby 
transferred to the water in the hot water tank. The electric immersion 
heater in the hot water tank turns on to provide auxiliary energy to the DHW 
if the temperature in the hot water tank drops below its thermostat setting. 

Mode 4 - Elimination of Excess Heat in Summer : This mode activates when the 
storage tank temperature, as determined by an aquastat located in the tank, 
exceeds 180°F. At this time the collector and storage circuit pumps (PI and 
P2, respectively) are activated, thereby transferring energy from the storage 
tank to the collector by way of the external heat exchanger. This energy is 
then radiated from the collector to the atmosphere. This mode continues until 
the storage temperature drops below 180°F. 

Mode 5 - Snow Removal in Winter : This mode activates when the collector 
and storage circuit pumps (PI and P2) are manually switched on in order to 
melt the snow that has accumulated on the collector. 



II. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 



INTRODUCTION 

The site was unoccupied in March and the solar energy system operated contin- 
uously during the month. Solar energy satisfied 41 percent of the space 
heating requirements. The solar energy system provided fossil fuel energy 
savings of 3.6 million Btu and incurred an electrical energy expense of 0.099 
million Btu. A control problem caused intermittent cycling of mode 1 during 
periods of good insolation. This resulted in mode 1 operation for about 60 
percent of the time that potential mode 1 conditions existed during the month. 
There was no hot water load during March since the water was turned off. 

WEATHER CONDITIONS 

During the month, total incident solar energy on the collector array was 
17.3 million Btu for a daily average of 1198 Btu per square foot. This was 
below the estimated average daily solar radiation for this geographical area 
during March of 1446 Btu per square foot for a south-facing plane with a tilt 
of 37 degrees to the horizontal. The average ambient temperature during March 
was 42°F as compared with the long-term average for March of 41 °F. The 
number of heating degree-days for the month (based on a 65°F reference) was 
709, as compared with the long-term average of 753. 



THERMAL PERFORMANCE 

System - During March the solar energy system performed somewhat poorer than 
expected. The expected performance was determined from a modified f-chart 
analysis using measured weather and subsystem loads as inputs. Solar energy 
collected was 3.8 million Btu versus an estimated 4.7 million Btu. Solar 
energy used by the system was estimated by assuming that all energy collected 
would be applied to the load. Actual solar energy used was 2.2 million Btu. 
System total solar fraction was 41 percent versus an estimated 88 percent. 
The poorer performance is attributed to the mode 1 cycling during periods of 
good insolation. This is discussed further in the "Observations" section 
below. 

Collector - The total incident solar radiation on the collector array for the 
month of March was 17.3 million Btu. During the period the collector loop 
was operating, the total insolation amounted to 5.2 million Btu. The total 
collected solar energy for the month of March was 3.8 million Btu, resulting 
in a collector array efficiency of 22 percent, based on total incident insola- 
tion. Solar energy delivered from the collector array to storage was 3.7 mil- 
lion Btu. Energy loss during transfer from the collector array to storage was 
0.052 million Btu. This loss represented 1 percent of the energy collected. 
Operating energy required by the collector loop was 0.078 million Btu. 

Storage - Solar energy delivered to storage was 3.7 million Btu. There were 
2.2 million Btu delivered from storage to the space heating subsystem. 
Energy loss from storage was 1.5 million Btu. This loss represented 41 per- 
cent of the energy delivered to storage. The storage efficiency was 59 percent 
This is calculated as the ratio of the sum of the energy removed from storage 
and the change in stored energy, to the energy delivered to storage. The 
average storage temperature for the month was 107°F. 

Space Heating Load - The space heating subsystem consumed 2.2 million Btu of 
solar energy and 5.4 million Btu of auxiliary fossil fuel energy to satisfy a 
space heating load of 5.3 million Btu. The solar fraction of this load was 
41 percent. Losses from the space heating subsystem were 2.2 million Btu. 
The space heating subsystem consumed a total of 0.29 million Btu of operating 
energy, resulting in an electrical energy expense of 0.021 million Btu. It 
also provided a fossil fuel energy savings of 3.6 million Btu. 

OBSERVATIONS 

The solar energy system cycled in mode 1 during periods of good insolation 
during the month. As a result, it is estimated that approximately 40 percent 
of the potential solar energy was not collected because of this cycling. 
During periods of good insolation, mode 1 operation averaged about 35 minutes 
with the quiescent periods (between mode 1 operations) averaging about 
30 minutes. The grantee plans to relocate the collector control sensor and 
change the control temperature differentials of the controller in an attempt 
to eliminate mode 1 cycling. 

The operation of W401 (furnace air flow) was restored on March 1. Therefore, 
the auxiliary thermal energy supplied to the space heating load for the first 



10 hours of March was derived from the auxiliary fossil fuel used during this 
interval. For the remainder of the month, the auxiliary thermal energy was 
derived in the normal manner, using the mass flow and temperature differences 
in the space heating subsystem. 

Anomalies in two of the three storage temperature sensors required that the 
storage temperature be based on the single operating sensor. Since this 
sensor measures the temperature at the top of the tank, the reported average 
storage temperature (107°F) is probably higher than the true average storage 
temperature. 

ENERGY SAVINGS 

The solar energy system provided a total fossil fuel energy savings of 3.6 
million Btu and incurred an electrical energy expense of 0.099 million Btu. 
The space heating subsystem incurred an electrical energy expense of 0.021 
million Btu and provided a fossil fuel energy savings of 3.6 million Btu. 

III. ACTION STATUS 

The grantee will change the temperature differentials of the collector con- 
troller and relocate the collector control sensor in April. Boeing must 
resolve the sensor anomalies on their next site visit which is tentatively 
scheduled for late April. 



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